Understanding the basics of building construction helps to construct a building project successfully.
Basic Steps in Starting a Building Project
When there is a plan to develop a new building, it is very necessary to have an idea about the start and the end of the building project. The flowchart below shows the construction flow from the start to the end of a building project.
There may be variations as every project is unique and follows different design and construction process. In general, the basic steps involved in a building project are briefly explained.
- Preparation of Construction Site
- Foundation Construction
- Superstructure Construction
- Punch Lists
- Building Warranty Period
This is the most important step in building construction. The most important factor to consider before purchasing land is its location. Based on your exact needs, you want to assess the location of the lot and its proximity to facilities such as public transport, highways, schools, parks, etc. If you already have land, half of your problem ends here. Every person needs a building to reside. Apart from residential purposes, buildings are required for industrial purposes, educational and business purposes, and the storage of materials. The technical consultant will help you create a plan and detailed scope of work for your building project, which is generally done by an Architect and Structural Engineers. The selection of a good contractor is crucial to the successful construction of the building project within the time frame and to maintain the quality of construction at the same time. Site preparation is the first activity of the construction phase of the building project. This task involves removing unwanted obstructions from the site such as woods, debris, tree roots, and old buildings if present, and leveling the ground area. After the completion of site clearance activities, the next phase is the site survey and layout. Site layout survey is the process of interpreting construction plans and marking the location of proposed structures with the help of surveying equipment such as level, theodolite, total station, etc. Building activity begins with digging the ground for the foundation and then building it. The foundation is the lowest part of the building responsible for transferring the load from the structure to the ground. Therefore, it requires great care and precision during construction. The part of the wall between the ground floor and the ground level is called a plinth. It is usually of stone masonry. If the foundation is on the pile, a plinth beam is inserted to support the wall above the floor level. A damp-proof course is provided at the top of the plinth. It is usually a 75 mm thick plain concrete course. The function of walls and columns is to transfer the load of the structure vertically downward so that it can be transferred to the foundation. In addition, the wall encloses the building and provides privacy, and protection from thieves and insects, and keeps the building warm in winter and cool in summer. Window frames should not be placed directly above the masonry. It is placed in a 50 mm to 75 mm thick plain concrete course provided above the masonry. This course is called Sill. Finishing operations such as ceiling plastering, external and internal plastering of walls begin after the construction of the structure. They are then provided with whitewash, distemper or paint, or tiles. It is the most important step in building construction. Search for the location for the building which is best suited for building construction purposes. Be careful while selecting land which has all the desired facilities available nearby and should be free from all land-related issues. It is suggested that prior data collection before buying land or plot either by doing research online or seeking help from real estate agents or concerned persons regarding the effective cost of the same.